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ABOUT MUSHROOMS

ABOUT MUSHROOMS

What is Mushroom?
        
          A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.It neither belong to the plants nor to animals. They belong to a separate group of organisms called fungi. They lack the usual green matter present in plants and grow on dead and decaying organic materials. The mushroom fruiting body may be umbrella like or of various other shapes, size and colour. Commonly it consists of a cap or pileus and a stalk or stipe but others have additional structures like veil or annulus, a cup or volva. Mushrooms are known for their nutritive and medicinal value.


A Cultivated Types in Tamilnadu-

         Pleurotus spp (Oyster Mushroom Cultivation)
The cultivation technology of this type of mushroom is different from button mushroom. In case of oyster mushroom cultivation, there is no need of composting of substrate. It grows directly on various agro-waste by making them free from germs with the help of physical / chemical treatments. Different types of cultivation systems are existing at different places such as : bag cultivation system, cylindrical block system, pressed block system etc.

       Milky mushroom (Calocybe indica)
Calocybe indica was reported for the first time from India in 1974. It grows in nature on humus soil under the road side trees or in forests. Its artificial cultivation technique has been perfected and has been adopted by farmers in Tamil Nadu and Karnatka . It can be cultivated on wheat / paddy straw at temperature around 35° C.


             Paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella spp.)
Paddy straw mushroom grows best on paddy straw. It requires a temperature of 30-35°C and 85-95% RH for fruiting. The surface of its cap is soft and smooth in texture. The colour of fully grown pileus is grayish white with a reddish tinge.

 

 

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  Mushroom compost can range from being manure or wood based (sawdust, wood chips) to utilizing materials like cocoa bean or cotton seed hulls, brewers grains , even exotic items like banana leaves as substrate.  
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